Showing posts with label Church History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Church History. Show all posts

Sunday, June 10, 2018

The Collective Image of the Inquisition is Fake News

(Rome) The historian Anna Foa, former Assistant Professor of Modern History at the Roman University of La Sapienza, recently spoke in the media on the subject of Inquisition, including the essay "Inquisition without a Monster" in the business daily Il Sole 24 Ore. The occasion was a historic conference to open the Vatican Secret Archives 20 years ago.
 
Foa recalled that the latest state of research refutes all "black legends" of the Holy Inquisition. The numerous allegations against the Inquisition have indeed entered into the collective memory, but only in recent times. They have little to do with historical reality.
 
The charges brought against the Church in connection with the Inquisition are genuine "fake news". The collective memory, which obviously has a very clear idea of ​​what the Inquisition was, does not go back to direct knowledge, but is an anti-Catholic construct whose origins date back to the eighteenth century. Many sides have worked on the caricature.
 
The problem, Foa says, is, as with much fake news, that false claims can be "louder" than the truth. This has to do mainly with who controls opinion, but also with the fact that some want to believe the fake news.
 
"Passions and prejudices," Foa said regretfully, "are a myth-factory" that seem to nourish themselves.
So it is in connection with the Inquisition and the Church. The historical facts are now known and researched, but the false stereotypes in people's minds are stronger. The historical reality is so different that it not only is dominated by every form of sensationalism, but suffocates demands for love of truth and intellectual honesty for a fundamental revision of the previous picture of history.
 
According to Foa, it is appropriate and urgent to revise the extent of the charges against the Church and its condemnation. But above all, the actual role of the Inquisition should distinguish between actual and alleged persecution.
 
There is a gigantic abyss between scientific certainty and "popular opinion" lay on the subject of Inquisition. The Internet has so far brought no improvement in the situation. Rather the widespread distorted image is widely disseminated further in the global network. It was daunting to see, says Foa, how truthful many people are against the Fake News Inquisition implanted in their minds. It turns out to be very difficult to break up absolutely baseless, but solidified prejudices. Unfortunately, it is difficult to pave the way for the truth while fake news are always new and rapidly spreading.
 
Anna Foa, graduated in 1968 with distinction at the University La Sapienza, where she later taught herself. She is a great-granddaughter of the anti-Zionist chief rabbi of Turin, Giuseppe Foa (1840-1917) and daughter of a founding father of post-war democratic Italy, the left-wing, atheist party leader and Member of Parliament Vittorio Foa (1910-2008). 1)
 
His daughter Anna Foa returned to her Jewish faith. Most recently, she was a visiting professor at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
 
Text: Giuseppe Nardi
Image: Youtube (screenshot)
Trans: Tancred vekron99@hotmail.com
AMDG
 

Saturday, March 10, 2012

How Benedict XV Dealt With Czech Dissidents in 1919

About a hundred years ago there was a "Pastor's Initiative" of about 1200 priests against celibacy.  Rome reacted quickly and with great effectiveness.
The Main Church of the
Neo-Hussites in Prague


(kreuz.net)  Calls from clerics, who are disobedient to the hierarchy, is nothing new.

This was revealed by the Bavaria born Church historian, Cardinal Walter Brandmuller (83), in an article for the Catholic newspaer 'Tagespost'.

The Cardinal recalled a revolt of clerics which took place in Bohemia at the beginning of the twentieth century and spread to Slovakia.

Without Jews, without Rome, we'll build the German Cathedral.


Cardinal Brandmuller explained about how the turn of the nineteenth century there was a "Break Away from Rome Movement" present in Austria.

The initiator was Georg Ritter von Schönerer († 1921).

He used anti-clerical and antisemitic ideas: "Without Jews, without Rome, we'll build a German Cathedral home."

This was the genesis of the National Socialists.

After a decade the propaganda persuaded then around a hundred thousand Austrian Catholics.

This movement found a sequel a half-century later -- said Cardinal Brandmuller: "in the turbulent time after the Second Vatican Council by the adherents of "We Are Church", "Church From Below" and the circles around the "Kirchenvolkbegehren [Church People Seeking Reform].

The Demand Was Changed After the Council


A similar parallel to the Austrian one man show 'Pastor Initiative' is what Cardinal Brandmuller sees in the "Czech-Hussite National Church".  They existed in the years after the First World War.

Czech clerics revolted after the collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy firstly against the Episcopate.

After that they demanded a supposedly democratized and Rome-independent National Church.

The movement called itself 'Jednota'.  They wanted a Liturgy in the national language, a shortened Breviary and married priests.

Additionally they demanded to elect their own Bishops by the clergy and the people, a democratization of the Church constitution and the abolition of clerical clothing.

Rome Reacts

At the end of February 1919 the Viennese Nuncio Teodoro Valfre di Bonzo (+1922) traveled to Prague, in order to form a picture of the situation.

In June 1919 delegates of 'Jednota' were invited by the Pope to Rome.

In the mean time, the Nuncio informed the Vatican State Secretary, Pietro Cardinal Gasparri (+1934).

The Nuncio promoted  an unmistakable and decisive  position against 'Jednota'.

The rebels were not won over by concessions.  Giving away would have only further disturbed the faithful.

The 'Jednota' -- demands -- especially for married priests -- were decisively rejected.

The sending of a 'Jednota'-delegation to Rome led, according to Cardinal Brandmuller, to a division of  minds.

For example, the theological faculty of the University of Prague had distanced itself from its Dean, who had participated in the 'Jednota' delegation.

1,200 Want End to Priestly Celibacy

As the next development was completed, a radicalization of the group took place, said the Cardinal.  These named themselves from then on as 'Ohnisko' -- for burn point.

Their members were already decided even before the trip of 'Jednota'- Delegation to Rome,  were prepared to transact their demands in case of a Roman rejection.

In August 1919 'Ohnisko' called upon Catholic Priests to marry civilly.

As one of the first steps, fallen priest Bohumil Zahradnik acted.   In any case he was already living in concubinage for ten years.

The 'Ohnisko'- priests were addressed by the State authorities and compensated.

In September 1919 they attempted to get a dispensation for a very large number, 1,200 priests from celibacy.

The National Church was Proclaimed

On January 8th of 1920 the anti-clerical Czech government declared a "Czechoslovakian Church".

As Patriarch, the lapsed priest, a certain Karel Farsky (+1927) was elected.

This National Church represented Modernism.

A Catechism by Farksy maintained that Jesus was only a son of God in the same sense that all men were sons of God.

Christ is only the greatest of prophets.

For Cardinal Brandmuller it was thoroughly clear that the roots of the problem lay deeper than in the area of practical, disciplinary changes:

"A large part of the clergy were in a shattering crisis of their Catholic Faith."

Rome Came with a Heavy Hand


A week after the founding of the State Church -- on the 15th of January 1920-- the Holy See condemned the schismatic coalition and anathematized them.

Priests who belonged to the National Church, were in any case in excommunicated automatically in all senses.

Benedict XV. insisted in a letter of the 29th of January 1920, that there was never an agreement on priestly marriage.

The Czech Bishops had shown themselves equal to the situation -- and he was grateful for the decisive shepherds.

The Church's Censure Showed Itself as the Right Way


In an address at the end of the year in 1920, Pope Benedict XV stressed that Rome would not endeavor making the rule regarding celibacy any less stringent.

Any deviating assertions are misleading.

It is clear that the Church has priestly celibacy to thank for a great part of Her power.

It must be wholely and entirely unaltered.

That  is " never before has it been more necessary in these times of moral degredation and unchecked vice" -- said the Pope on the eve of National Socialism and Fascism.

It will never happen that "this Holy Apostolic See will enfeeble or abolish this most holy law of priestly celibacy in any manner."

Back then: The Church Oriented Itself on Reality


Cardinal Brandmuller praised Romes decisive proceedings against the Czech rebels:  "There was an understanding that set in that this was something that couldn't be won by negotiations."

The rebels wanted to alter the foundations of the Catholic Faith and of Christendom.

That was shown, among other things, in a popular census in 1921.

According to that 3.2 percent of Czechs belonged to the State sponsored Church.

The other part of Catholics -- about 76.3 percent of the population -- remained Catholic.

Today, the rebel society calls itself the 'Czech-Hussite Church'.

They count on paper around 100,000 demoralized members.

Link to kreuz.net....

Photo: © Che, Wikipedia, CC




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